Resource Type: Knowledge Products

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Parental Alienation – A Splitting of the Self

Nick Woodall, M.S., holds a master’s degree in psychodynamic psychotherapy and has worked with separated families since 1999. In addition to his therapeutic work with alienated families, Nick is an expert witness in the U.K. family courts. He has worked extensively on family policy, developing new services for the U.K. government.

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Parental Alienation – A Trans-Generational Trauma

Karen Woodall is a Trans-Generational Psychotherapist Treating Parental Alienation. She is a highly experienced psychotherapist and author who has worked with separated families since 1991. Research reveals that adult alienated children suffer in very unique ways—ways that include a strong chance of becoming alienated from their own children.

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Parental Alienation – Evidence Based Science

Steven G. Miller talks about Parental Alienation: Among professionals who specialize in child alignment, it is well known that many aspects of parental alienation are highly counter-intuitive. Examples include how to distinguish alienation from estrangement, how to identify hybrid cases, and how to treat alienated children. Other examples abound.

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Parental Alienation – Targeted parents and the effects – Research

Estimating the prevalence of parental alienation is challenging because not all children who are exposed to parental alienating behaviors become alienated. The purpose of the current study was to determine the proportion of adults who indicate being alienated from a child using three national online panels that are representative of adults from the United States (two polls) and Canada (one poll) and to determine the mental health impact of parental alienating behaviors.

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Litigating International Child Abduction Cases Under the Hague Convention

The purpose of the first Manual, issued in 2007, was to provide attorneys with a road map for litigating international child abduction cases. Since the publication of the first Manual, the United States Supreme Court issued its first opinion concerning the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, and more parties have sought to resolve international abduction matters through alternative methods, including mediation. This updated Manual not only provides a general understanding of the law and its recent developments, but also describes practical considerations to aid attorneys in advocating for their clients. Finally, it raises issues and makes suggestions to ameliorate the potentially negative impact that these proceedings may have on the children involved in such disputes.1 As is evident in this Manual, representing a client in an international abduction matter requires a balancing of various considerations.

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Family Abduction Prevention and Response

Many child abductions in the United States are committed by a parent or other family member. An estimated 203,900 children were victims of family abduction in the United States in 1999, according to the second National Incidence Studies: Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrown away Children(NISMART-2), a study published by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention(OJJDP), U.S. Department of Justice, in 2002.1 Children who are victims of family abduction are uprooted from their homes and deprived of their other parent.Often they are told the other parent no longer loves them or is dead. Too often abducted children live a life of deception, sometimes under a false name, moving frequently and lacking the stability needed for healthy, emotional development.The term parental kidnapping describes the wrongful removal or retention of a child by a parent. Because child kidnappings are frequently committed by other family members, the term family abduction more accurately describes such action. Both terms are used interchangeably in this book. Both have civil and criminal meanings.When a parental kidnapping occurs the government may pursue criminal process against the abductor if a criminal law has been violated. Law enforcement and prosecutors are part of the criminal-justice system. The left-behind parent may pursue civil remedies to prevent an abduction or recover a wrong-fully removed or wrongfully retained child. The left-behind parent’s lawyer and the family court are part of the civil-justice system. It is important to understand both criminal and civil remedies can be pursued when an abduction occurs. The decision to pursue civil remedies is up to the parent, whereas the prosecutor ultimately has discretion whether to pursue criminal process.This guide covers civil and criminal remedies in parental kidnapping cases.It navigates parents and attorneys through the criminal- and civil-justice systems’ responses to parental kidnapping. It describes actions parents can take and laws that may be helpful when their children are the victims of family abduction. It also explains how to prevent abductions.Parents should take this book with them when they meet with their attorneys, law enforcement, prosecutors, and family-court personnel, many of whom may be handling a family-abduction case for the first time.

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When Your Child Is Missing: A Family Survival Guide

This Guide was written by parents and family members who have experienced the disappearance of a child. It contains their combined advice concerning what you can expect when your child is missing, what you can do, and where you can go for help. It explains the role that various agencies and organizations play in the search for your missing child and dis-cusses some of the important issues that you and your family need to consider. The first checklist, What You Should Do When Your Child Is First Missing, summarizes the most critical steps that parents should take when their child is first missing, including whom to call, what to do to preserve evidence, and where to turn for help.

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Family Abductions: What We’ve Learned An In-Depth Analysis by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

A family abduction is defined as the taking, retention or concealment of a child, younger than 18 years of age, by a parent, other person with a family relationship to the child, or his or her agent, in violation of the custody rights, including visitation rights of a parent or legal guardian. Between 2008 and 2017, the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children® (NCMEC) received 16,264 children with 11,761 known abductors who were involved in family abductions cases. Children and abductors were analyzed for demographics, and missing and recovery information. This report also presents information pertaining to missing duration, as well the amount of time taken to obtain a state warrant or enter the child in the National Crime Information Center (NCIC).The majority of these cases involved children who were abducted by a biological parent (89.9%). Family abductions are more likely to occur when the child(ren) are younger and the abduction takes place most often during the summer. Children abducted by family members were most likely to have a mean age of 5 years old. Almost a third (32.2%) of these children were abducted in the summer months (June, July, August). In the past decade, there has been an overall decline in the amount of time in which the child is separated from their custodial parent/guardian when they are abducted by a family member.Cases with an international component had longer missing durations than domestic cases, but the durations of both were on the decline. This report found significant correlations between the time it took to issue state warrant and the missing duration of a child.

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