The children, a boy and a girl, were 3 _ and 1 _ at the date of the alleged wrongful removal. They had lived in both Sweden and Poland, moving to the latter State in November 1992.
In May 1993 the mother unilaterally removed the children to the United States of America. However, she returned with them after two months. On 6 April 1994 the mother again took the children to the United States of America.
On 30 September 1994 the District Court for the Southern District of Iowa ordered the return of the children and ordered the mother to pay all of the father’s expenses.
The mother appealed.